In addition to specific weathering, the Column was subject to visitors marking their presence through graffiti. The rate of erosion has indubitably accelerated since 1870 when Rome became the new capital of a united Italy. III). Column of Trajan, dedicated 113 C.E., plan, elevation, and section The column itself is made from fine-grained Luna marble and stands to a height of 38.4 meters (c. 98 feet) atop a tall pedestal. o Shows that he was proud of his military acts. Pedestal dimensions: 6.18m square (20.88 R.F.). 8.9). Piranesi). This well-preserved column was built in A.D. 113 in a courtyard behind the Basilica Ulpia in Trajan's Forum. 6.32). Pedestal staircase, fourth flight looking SW and down (left block joint and clamp removal). – Ratio of Column height to base diameter is thus ca. The dividing band, 0.02-0.05m. Reusable components removed at unknown dates included the four doors of the pedestal, the door leading onto the balcony, the balcony railings, and the bronze statue on the top of the monument. Trajan’s Forum, hemicycle wall, looking SW (metal clamps quarried out from between blocks). It was carved following free-hand painting of the letters, without use of a cartoon or geometrically drafted letter forms (Evetts 1938; Catlich 1968; Ohlsen 1981; Kemp 1999). Top of shaft, looking SE (flutings, bead-and-reel, egg-and-dart, abacus/balcony). The 2,662 human figures on this frieze range between 0.6 and 0.8 m. in height, or less than half life-size, with markedly taller figures on the uppermost winding. ; Wilson Jones 2000, 165). Similarly stone has fallen away immediately below a joint between drums in a few places on the exterior, most seriously in Scenes CI and CXLVII where human figures have gone. The ceiling is one smooth, continuous surface. Spiral staircase, ceiling (earthquake damage at drum joint). The column sits in what used to be Trajan’s forum and it is a monument celebrating the military campaign and victory that Emperor Trajan led in Dacia, the area that is now Romania. comm.). Pedestal stair first flight, looking SE and down (block joints B-C-F; left window; lamp niche on far wall). 92). Interior spiral staircase: 185 steps. The height of the helical stairway within the Column is exactly 100 R.F. As for the architectural scope, Trajan’s Column has an overall height of around 120-125 ft (approximately 36 m – including the pedestal) and a diameter of 12.1 ft (3.7 m), and as such, is composed of a series of 19 or 20 Carrara marble drums, each weighing a mighty 32 tons. The overall height is 35.07m. As part of a wide-ranging series of monumental restorations, Pope Sixtus V ordered work on Trajan’s Column, overseen by Domenico Fontana and Carlo Maderno. 90; 1988b, Fig. 88). The monument was cleaned using a mist of fresh water. The former doubled the thickness of the wall of blocks A, B and D. The latter supported the central block which bore the weight of the central column of the spiral staircase. A good example of this precision may be observed on outside of the hemicycle wall of Trajan’s Forum. Alignment of the blocks of the pedestal was dictated by two considerations: the threshold to the main door (block B) should not have a joint at its mid-point; the appearance of the inscription would be greatly enhanced if it also did not have a medial joint (block F). Again ecclesiastical structures may have been built up against this side of the Column. Access to the rear room was drastically narrowed, and, to accommodate the additional pier, the marble bench had to be chiselled away leaving a remnant zone of rough tool-marks (Martines 2001a, Pl. 23). The most substantial damage has been caused over time by the robbing of recyclable components, as is common with other metropolitan buildings. On the Marcus Column it passes across her hips with most unfortunate effect (Petersen et al. high and 5.30m. Home; Structures > Trajan's Column. Cutting for a horizontal metal clamp has been made across the joint between blocks E and F. Side 3 has two pedimental channels, one small inside one large cut into block E, and a rectangular perforation in the second course across the vertical join, which at some point has been closed off using a cross of metal clamps. The capital block of Trajan's Column weighs 53.3 tons, which had to be lifted to a height of c. 34 metres (112 feet). Trajan's Column Trajan, augustus, Germanicus, Dacicus, pontifex Trajan’s column in Rome: what it is and what makes it special. Internal surfaces exhibit the tool-marks of tooth-chiselling, so walls, helical ceiling and window-splays were not further worked to a smooth finish. […] – Abacus (platform) carried by the capital: … The shaft of the column is composed of 19 drums of marble measuring c. 3.7 meters (11 feet) in diameter, weighing a total of c. 1,110 tons. high, the joint was raised by 0.17m., making the lower block taller than the upper (Wilson Jones 1993; 2000, Fig. The overall height is 35.07m. Upper shaft looking SE (narrow frieze field, broadest top three windings). Side 1 (door) is dominated by the dedicatory inscription (CIL VI.960) within a tabula ansata, born by two opposed Victories. Carved into the structure are 2,662 figures in 155 scenes. The Trajan's Column was erected by Trajan between the two libraries in his forum is made up of nineteen cylindrical blocks of marble. It stands on an 8-block base and is topped by a two-block pedestal. Compared with the Column of Marcus Aurelius and many other monuments in Rome, Trajan’s Column is in pretty good condition. Openings were broken right through the thickness of the outer wall in some cases, damaging the helical frieze with consequent loss of some human figures (notably in Scenes VI; XLIII.2; LVI-VII; LXII.1; LXXIII.11-16; LXXXII.1, 3; XCII; CIV.5; CIII.10, 12, 14, 16; CXV; CXXVI.9-11; CXXXIX.9-CXL.1). The column itself is made from fine-grained Luna marble and stands to a height of 38.4 meters (c. 98 feet) atop a tall pedestal. (ed. Figural decoration includes ca. 91). Total number of marble blocks used to build the Column: 29, of Luna marble, with an estimated weight of 1,100 tons (Lancaster 1999: 419). Lettering at the base of Trajan’s Column at one end of Trajan’s Forum in Rome is regarded by many as one of the best example of Roman Capitals. The column consists of 18 huge blocks of marble from Carrara, each of which weighs about 40 tons and has a diameter of about 4 meters. Seen from Side 1, from bottom to top these present stretcher (block B), headers (C and D), stretcher (F), headers (G and H). Set on a pedestal and topped by a great capital, the column measures 29.78 metres or one hundred Roman feet: a carefully calculated height. – Total height of Column (including statue base above the capital and pedestal): 38.402 or 129.7 RF (Wilson-Jones/Coarelli). Florescu 1969, Fig. The lettering, on which many modern typefaces are directly based, has always been considered as the finest manifestation of the Roman epigraphic artform. A change in plan for the layout of the internal staircase also necessitated raising the horizontal join between courses two and three so as not to make the soffit of the internal vestibule too thin, thus avoiding the danger of it cracking under the weight of stone piled above. More specifics about the pedestal. The courses are of unequal heights (bottom to top: 1.165, 1.695, 1.355, 1.940m. Column of Marcus Aurelius, Roma, Scene LV, Victory and drum joint. This arrangement allows the structure to narratively represent around a who… 43774 Trajans Column Ter is within the school district Loudoun County Public Schools with nearby schools including Moorefield Station Elementary School, … The upper middle third course and the middle of the four has broken zones, perhaps in the last marking the area of a lost window. Mediaeval scavengers knew exactly where metal clamps between stone blocks were located so that they could chisel in with the minimum of superfluous effort. LVDOVI – Abacus (platform) carried by the capital: 4.34m square (14.66 R.F. ), an observation with both structural and sculptural implications. Trajan appears in 58 of them. (ed.) In 1536 Pope Paul III had the pedestal excavated so that the Column stood in a rectilinear pit (Lanciani 1990, 131-40; Coarelli 2000a, 257-59). This presumably belonged to the miniature 10th century church of S. Nicola de Columna which used the Column as its campanile (Brizzi 2000, 231). On the right side of the vestibule a door led directly to a staircase of 27 steps in four sections with four left-hand, ninety-degree turns. ); vertical face 65cm. The latter number is extraordinary as a piece of geometric virtuosity because it was much easier to divide up a circle into 12 or 16 (Wilson Jones 1993, 30-1; 2000, 169; Martines 2000, 23, 27-8, Fig. The stairway exits through a doorway facing north-east onto the balcony. Shaft Scenes XLVII-VIII (window with damaged frame); XLIX and LVI-VII (Medieval clamp removal on drum joint line). The weight of the building was taken on the central shaft and the outer wall, but the helix also channelled the downward thrust in a novel manner. Above the flutings the Column’s Doric capital is decorated with an egg-and-dart frieze of 24 eggs on its echinus, and a band of bead-and-reel below it. high, standing on a 5.29m. It stands on a 5.29 m high pedestal, which makes the overall height 35.07 m. In addition, the exposure of the monument to winds with a higher saline content blowing up the Tiber from the sea more adversely affected the south and south-west facing surface than the other, more sheltered aspects (Armstrong 1983; Conti 2000, 248). The capital block of Trajan's Column weighs 53.3 tons, which had to be lifted to a height of c. 34 metres (112 feet). ), Appearance and Essence. Powered by Pinboard Theme by One Designs and WordPress, The history, archaeology and iconography of the monument, Architect: Apollodorus of Damascus (presumed), Date of dedication: 12 May of 113 CE (according to Calza’s interpretation of a fragment of the, Shaft construction: 19 drums of Luna (Carrara) marble form the base (. This gives a total of 29 pieces, all made of Carrara marble (marmor Lunensium), probably from the quarries at Fantiscritti (near Massa Carrara, Italy). A cavetto profile to the upper level of the pedestal forms the space occupied by ribbons and swags below the column base proper (Martines 2001a, Pl. The senate and people of Rome (dedicate this) to Autour de la Colonne Aurélienne. Balcony level, lower drum (note claw-chiselled surface). CO XIV. Pedestal Side 1 inscription (CIL VI.960). The pedestal has been badly fractured with large chunks broken away from the corners, especially on the plinth of the lowest course (A and B), and three out of the four margins of the second course up (C and D). Upper pedestal, looking South (torus damage). The frieze (section containing the bas reliefs) uniquely runs around the shaft in a spiral manner for 23 times, thereby covering an impressive expanse of 620 ft (190 m). The relief is on average 0.05 deep, but this varies, and appears lowest on the south-east face, highest on the north-west. ); Shaft = 26.92m (90.94 R.F.) DCLXV A pedimental channel has been cut into the stone above, and framing, the door, obliterating the middle of the bottom line of the inscription. A total of 185 steps took the visitor from the pavement outside the pedestal up to the balcony. Trajan's Column. The pedestal sides are numbered here, for convenience of reference, as Side 1, south-east (inscription); Side 2, north-east; Side 3, north-west; Side 4, south-west (following the anti-clockwise progression of the internal spiral stair and exterior helical frieze). Set on a pedestal and topped by a great capital, the column measures 29.78 metres or one hundred Roman feet: a carefully calculated height. If you consider also the large pedestal the height gets to 35 meters. Building activities. […] Erosion damage may be discerned by comparing casts made in 1665-70 with others made in 1861-62. The staircase then enters into an anticlockwise spiral or helix, in 11 turns, 14 steps in each full turn. Introduzione allo studio dei fregi d’armi antichi, Roma, Rockwell, P. 1981-83: ‘Preliminary study of the carving techniques on the Column of Trajan’, Marmi Antichi, Studi Miscellanei 26, Roma, 101-11, Rockwell, P. 1993: The Art of Stoneworking: a Reference Guide, Cambridge, Wilson Jones, M. 1999: ‘The practicalities of Roman entasis’, in Haselberger, L. high, standing on a 5.29m. Refinements in Classical Architecture: Curvature, Philadelphia, 1999, 225-49, Wilson Jones, M. 2000: Principles of Roman Architecture, New Haven, Zanardi, L. 1988: ‘Evoluzione del deperimento della Colonna Traiana. This was presumably designed to improve the integrity of the overall pedestal, but also may have been influenced by the geological availability of the monolithic blocks in the quarry. Indeed the first course blocks diverge slightly in dimensions, and some adjustments were necessary within a 0.05m. 2000a: The Column of Trajan, Roma, Coarelli, F. 2000b: ‘The Column of Trajan’, in Coarelli 2000a, 1-34, Conti, C. 2000: ‘The restoration of Trajan’s Column (1981-88)’, in Coarelli 2000a, 243-49, Evetts, L.C. LA COLONA Spiral staircase window interior (note claw-chiselled surfaces). The decision was made not to fashion the pedestal from one, immensely heavy block. – Column Height (base-with-plinth+shaft+capital): 29.78m (100.61 R.F. Progressing up the shaft, the sculptors were moderately confident until just over half-way through the work, when they seem to have feared that space was running out. may be suggested. A section of the torus wreath has been badly broken on its northern aspect. Full text of "The works of the Right Reverend William Warburton, D.D., lord bishop of Gloucester : to which is prefixed a discourse by way of general preface, containing some account of the life, writings, and character of the author" See other formats This had major implications for the sculptures carved on the pedestal dies after assembly. Dacia covered modern-day Romania and Moldova as well as parts of Bulgaria, Serbia, Hungary, Poland and Ukraine. They are surrounded by a mass of 16th to 20th century records. This means that something continues up to town id done the washing up, do we account for more prompts: The bas-relief of trajans column in the darkness and into new glass bottles. It is a hollow column and there is a spiral stair of … o 125 feet tall, marks the height of the hill that was removed- Libraries Spiral staircase, top doorway, looking in and down (note graffiti). 1988: La Colonna Traiana, Torino, 549-97, Agosti, G. and Farinella, V. 1988b: ‘Il fregio della Colonna Traiana e i Francesi’, in Francesi 1988, 19-231, Armstrong, G. 1983: ‘Trajan’s Column in the wars’, Sunday Times Magazine, February 20th, 32-4, Beckmann, M. 2002: ‘The ‘columnae coc(h)lides‘ of Trajan and Marcus’, Phoenix 56, 348-57, Beckmann, M. 2006: ‘The direction of carving of the Columns of Trajan and Marcus Aurelius’, Mitteilungen des Deutchen Archäologischen Instituts (Römische Abteilung) 112, 225-36, Brizzi, B. ; Wilson Jones 2000, 72, 165-67). Top of spiral satircase, inscribed Greek notice of Constantius II’s visit. There are 152 steps with comfortably proportioned risers in contrast with many other ancient Roman buildings (cf. The cornice consists of a bead-and-reel astragal, a narrow fillet, a cyma recta decorated with a double row of upward pointing acanthus leaves, a narrow fillet, an ovolo moulding with bead-and-reel, a plain projecting moulding, an ovolo with two rows of narrow leaves pointing downwards, and a narrow fillet. Verdigris from the crowning bronze statue was also deposited on sculpted surfaces. Seventeen drums are stacked to form the rest of the shaft, each weighing approximately 29-33 tons after sculpting. Trajan’s first principal wars were fought against the Dacians, who inhabited a large territory encompassing much of Central Europe, ranging from the River Danube in the south to Black Sea in the East and encompassing the Carpathian Mountains. Trajan’s Column is a ‘Tuscan’ or ‘Roman Doric’ order column, 29.78m. ; the top three windings are 1.06-1.45m. Stone has fallen away below the joint leaving the third course (E and F) jutting outward. 106). MONS ET LOCVS TANT[IS OPE]RIBVS SIT EGESTIS. A niche cut into the stone to take an oil-lamp on the wall just inside the staircase door may be an original provision. The type of stone has been securely identified by isotopic analysis (Martines 2000). 23, 28-9; Coarelli 2000b, Fig. 1938: Roman Lettering. The latter curve down shallowly to rest on the top of the pedestal cornice. The small, rectangular window in the second course which lit the back chamber of the pedestal has at some time been blocked with a stone piece braced in place by a vertical clamp. The latter originally had a large integral bench. […] The reliefs on the base depict captured Dacian arms and armour, while the torus, at the foot of the column, takes the form of a laurel wreath. 1969: Die Trajanssäule, Bucaresti and Bonn, Francesi 1988:  La Colonna Traiana e gli artisti francesi da Luigi XIV a Napoleone I, Roma, Froehner, W. 1872-74: La Colonne Trajane, Paris, Heiken, G., Funiciello, R. and De Rita, D. 2005: The Seven Hills of Rome. (ed.) With refashioning of the topmost block in the 16th century the exact original overall height of the monument is unclear, but c. 38m. Capital = 1.16m (3.92 R.F.) A large piece has also been broken away around the joint between blocks of the fourth course (G and H). Overall, something in the order of 988 tons of marble made up the finished monument (Coarelli 2000b, Fig. The architect of the Forum of Trajan employed 100-foot modules in the layout of the complex, probably 400 feet long and 200 feet wide for the piazza; 200 feet wide and 600 feet long for the Basilica Ulpia. Apart from serious problems with the putative, continuously illustrated pictorial scroll concept, close examination of the Column reveals that the flutings are in higher relief than the frieze. Wilson-Jones/Coarelli, measured, from the torus: 28.915m). On the latter stand two further cylindrical blocks which once supported a bronze statue of the emperor … A Study of the Letters of the Inscription at the Base of the Trajan Column, with an Outline of the History of Lettering in Britain, London, Festa Farina, F., Calcani, G., Meucci, C., Conforto, M.L. Capital = 1.16m (3.92 R.F.) wide, 1.8m. Barbarian spolia entirely cover Sides 3-4 and on each die they are presented in two horizontal panels, one above the other. Pedestal Side 1 engraving (G.B. The shaft surface is carved with a 200m. Capitolium threshold detail ( in light drizzle ) conservation studies and cleaning in 1980s... S “ Building Trajan ’ s Column is formed by the pedestal of Trajan is a monumental single, commemorative... 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